Monday, February 8, 2010




Excavation is measured by volume and the quantities are given in the Bill of Quantities in m3. Description features for excavation and a summary of the CESMM notes are given in Table 1. Excavation is measured the net size of the excavated void with no allowance for working space. The volume being that before the material is excavated.
Excavation items do not include filling and compaction. Where the operations include filling and compaction with material excavated on the site, there must be two items one for excavation and one for filling and compaction. Some cases there will be a third item of double handling where double handling of the excavated material is expressly required.

The item descriptions for excavation state what happen to the excavated material when it is excavated whether the material is "for re-use" or "for disposal" (meaning disposal off site or disposal on site), the location of the disposal must be stated. If for disposal on site there is a spreading or other deposition requirement it must be identified in the item description. If there is a filling requirement, such as spreading of the material to designed profiles, a filling and compaction item in addition to the excavation item should be measured.
Unless otherwise stated all excavations are deemed to be in natural material other than top soil or rock and all excavated materials are deemed to be for re-use. The excavation in an item is deemed to start at the Original Surface and finish at the Final Surface. The item descriptions "Excavation of cuttings" or "Excavation of foundations", "General excavation" without further wording, each denoted by application of the provisions above. The material to be excavated is natural material other than top soil or rock, that it is for re-use and that the excavation in the item starts at the Original Surface and finishes at the Final Surface. Works for which separate items are not required are noted in the first panel of Table 2.1 (Source : CESMM).

2.1.1 Excavation Of Cuttings
Excavation of cuttings is measured by volume and is given in m3 in the Bill of Quantities. Example of item description for the excavation of the cutting is shown in cross-section in the diagram, Figure 2.1 and Table 2.2. The item description assume :
i) The excavation starts at the Original Surface and finishes at the Final Surface,
ii) There is no top soil at the Original Surface,
iii) All material excavated are for disposal.

The quantity attached to an item would be the volume of the material to be excavated. The excavation of cuttings sometimes require to be measured in stages.- It is normal for a specification to require that the bottom of 150-300mm of the excavation is left, to protect the formation, and excavated immediately prior to the laying of the base material.
Similarly, where is the top soil and it is specified to be excavated separately form other material. The excavation of the top soil is a stage of excavation for which a separate item must be given.
Figure 2.3 and Table 2.2, below shows excavation of the cuttings, in stages. The item descriptions assume :
  1. Top soil 150 mm deep,
  2. Remaining material is natural material, other than top soil or rock, and
  3. The last 150 mm excavation is left to protect the formation and is to be excavated is separate stage.

2.1.2 Excavation For Walls at Sides Of Cuttings
When wall are required at the sides of cuttings, the excavation to accommodate the wall and its backfilling is classified as general excavation. The depth of the excavation being taken down to the formation of the pavement abutting the face of the wall. Any excavation below the pavement level classified as excavation of foundations. This is illustrated in Figure 2.4. Additional detail could be provided by a diagram on the drawings indicating the measurement for measuring the excavation. The CESMM requires that item descriptions for "Excavation of Foundations" must state the location and limits of the excavation where is not clear.

2.1.3 Excavation below embankments

Where an embankment is to be constructed on steeply sloping round, the surface may be specified to be benched in steps or trenched. The steps or trenches can be classified as "Excavation of cuttings", it should be identified by the phrase "benched in steps below embankments" or "trenched below embankments.


The classification "General Excavation" covers to reduce over areas and for excavation to reduce a site to the formation level of a structure. Excavation of foundations is that which accommodates foundations. For both types of excavation the range of depth in which the maximum depth of the particular excavation work occurs must be specified. Both types are measured by volume and the unit of measurement is m3. Example for the excavation of foundations and to reduce the levels for the structure is shown in the Figure 2.5 and Table 2.3.

2.2.1 Excavation for Structure and Foundations
The volume measured for the excavation of a structure or foundation is the volume occupied by or vertically above any part of the structure or foundation. The application of three situations is illustrated in the Figure 2.6.

2.2.2 Dredging
The quantities of dredging measured from soundings are the net in-situ volume of the voids formed. Given in m3 and calculated for the areas of dredging and the depths obtained from soundings taken before and after dredging. An alternative method of measuring dredging is to measure the volume of dredged material from the hopper or barge in which the material is initially deposited.


2.3.1 Trimming of Slopes
Where surface of earthworks are specified to be sloped to a required angle of over 10 degrees to the horizontal, the surface areas of the slopes, given in square meters, are classified as "Trimming of Slopes". Excavation Ancillaries see Table 2.4.

2.3.2 Preparation of Surfaces
Preparation of surfaces is measured superficially in square meters to the extent that earthworks are to receive Permanent Works other than earthworks. The item covers merely preparing the surface to the required profiles and configurations. It would not include any material or additional

2.3.3 Double Handling of Excavated Material
Double handling excavated material is measured only when double handling is required. Consequently, excavation and filling items are deemed to include double handling that may be necessary to carry out the earthworks.
Double handling if excavated material is measure d by volume and is given in the Bill of Quantities in m3; The volume shall be that if the void formed in stockpile. When calculating the volume of double handling if excavated mate.ial for the quantities in the Bill of Quantities, an allowance will need to be made for the difference in bulk f the material in the stockpile and its bulk when used as filling.
When calculating the volume of material for double handling at the site the volume of the stockpile will need to be measured both before and after the material has been removed.

2.3.4 Dredging to remove silt
Dredging to remove silt is applicable only to silt which accumulated during the maintenance period and is required to be removed. The quantities for the Bill of Quantities will require to be estimated and measured on completion.

Filling is measured as equal in volume to that of the solid which represent the excavated volume, Normally additional filling and compaction are needed because of settlement of or penetration into the surface upon which the filling is placed and is measured where the depth of settlement or penetration exceeds 75mm.

Filling material is deemed to be unselected excavated material other than topsoil or rock unless otherwise stated into the item descriptions. Rock as filling material and excavated rock for re-use as filling are measured only when their use as filling at stated location is required. For filling and compaction with material excavated on site is measured, it is necessary to ensure that the filling requirement is matched in volume by that of the excavation classified as in material for re-use. If there is an insufficient volume of excavation to meet the filling requirement, the deficit will, obviously, need to be obtained from another source.

2.4.1 Filling and compaction to structures
The classification "filling and compaction to structures" covers and compaction to voids excavated for structures and foundation and also filling and compaction within , around and over structures. Figure 2.7 illustrates situations where, if required to be filled as shown, the filling and compaction would be classified as "to structures". The banks marked (a) may suggest the classification to be correctly classified as to structures.

2.4.2 Embankments
The classification embankments applies not only to those for roads and railways but also in dam construction. Embankments are measured by volume and the unit of measurements is in m3. The measured volume will include any designed volume for long term settlement. Specimen item description for the embankments shown in cross section in the diagram Figure 2.8 are given at table below the diagram.

2.4.3 Filing and Compaction to Stated Thickness
The classification "to stated thickness" applies to filling and compaction of a required thickness, such as a uniform bed or hardcore under a ground slab of a structure, a layer of draining material to form a drainage blanket, and the like.
Filling and compaction of this classification is measured superficially and the thickness is stated in the item descriptions. The actual thickness having been thus stated it is necessary to include that standard phrase ' to stated thickness " in the descriptions. When carried out on the surfaces inclined at an angle of exceeding 10 degrees to the horizontal the item description must so state. The unit of measurement is m2.

2.4.4 Pitching
The descriptive feature "Pitching" applies to the facing of earthwork with stones of block of hard material, usually placed close together to protect the surface.
The work is measured superficially and is given in the Bill in m2, It must be stated in the item description when work is to surfaces exceeding 10 degrees to the horizontal. All item descriptions for pitching must state the nature and the dimensions and the depth or thickness of the materials used for the work. Nominal sizes for pitching, thickness 200mm, broken limestone size 200 x 150 mm.

2.4.5 General Filling and Compaction
General filling and compaction is the to make up levels over areas and in situations which would not be appropriately classified under the other Second Division descriptive features. The unit of measurements is m3.


i) Excavation measured with no allowance for bulking.
ii) Cost of disposal of excavated materials will be covered by the excavation rate and stated in the description of the item.

  • Excavation rate = transportation + excavate + deposit cannot exceed 200m (RM 3.00)
  • more than 200m distance of excavation and deposition the rate will rise (>RM 3.00)

iii) Separated item will be provided when the amount of filling required exceeds the amount from the excavation.




No comments:

Post a Comment